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News Plățile pentru serviciile de mediu (PES), un concept inovator în conservarea biodiversității

 

WWF susţine publicarea unui raport recent al Organizaţiei pentru Cooperare şi Dezvoltare Economică (OCDE), ce prezintă o perspectivă inovativă a conservării naturii: plăţile pentru serviciile de mediu. Raportul a fost prezentat la Conferinţa COP10 de la Nagoya, în cadrul căreia a fost elaborat planul strategic de conservare a biodiversităţii pentru perioada 2011- 2020.

Bazată pe studii de caz din întreaga lume, publicaţia „Preţul biodiversităţii: eficientizarea plăţilor pentru serviciile de mediu” recomandă metode de elaborare a unor scheme PES mai eficace şi mai puţin costisitoare.

Concerned URL http://romania.panda.org/?196340/Plile-pentru-serviciile-de-mediu-PES-un-concept-inovator-n-conservarea-biodiversitii
Source WWF România
Release date 03/11/2010
Contributor Dorin Pop
Geographical coverage Europa, Romania,
Keywords WWF, servicii, biodiversitate

Plățile pentru serviciile de mediu sau prețul pe care îl punem pe natură

 

Zi de zi, natura ne oferă servicii: solul necesar culturilor sau construcțiilor, apă, alimente, are rol de protecție împotriva calamităților (de exemplu, zonele umede care „absorb” apa ca un burete, protejând împotriva inundațiilor). Toate acestea reprezintă servicii de mediu, de care beneficiem individual sau pe care ne bazăm afacerile, bunăstarea și dezvoltarea economică a societății.

 

Serviciile de mediu se împart în patru categorii:

 

Serviciile de suport – creează condițiile necesare pentru furnizarea altor servicii de mediu (de exemplu: fotosinteza, formarea solului).

Serviciile de furnizare – toate produsele furnizate de către ecosisteme (de exemplu: alimentele, fibrele, combustibilii, ierburile și plantele medicinale, resursele genetice, apa potabilă).

Serviciile de reglementare – capacitatea ecosistemelor de a reglementa procesele naturale importante (de exemplu: reglementarea climatului, calitatea și cantitatea apei).

Serviciile culturale – beneficiile imateriale ale serviciilor de mediu (de exemplu: valoarea estetică a peisajului, spațiile de recreere).

 

Conceptul PES (Payment for Environmental Services – Plăți pentru serviciile de mediu) a apărut la nivel internațional la începutul aniilor `90, ca un instrument pentru asigurarea menținerii calității acestor servicii și a ecosistemelor naturale pe care se bazează. Plățile funcționează pe sistemul mecanismelor financiare de piață sau al subvențiilor publice.

 

Până acum, în întreaga lume au fost implementate 300 de scheme PES, majoritatea derulate la nivel local sau regional.

 

Recomandările OCDE

 

Raportul OCDE atrage atenţia asupra faptului că, în contextul unui trend alarmant de pierdere a biodiversităţii, este absolut necesar ca, pe de o parte, politicile şi stimulentele de încurajare a conservării naturii şi a serviciilor de mediu să fie aplicate la o scară mai largă, iar, pe de altă parte, ca resursele financiare existente pentru programele dedicate biodiversităţii să fie eficientizate.

 

Având la bază numeroase resurse teoretice din literatura de specialitate şi inspirat din experienţa programelor PES implementate atât în ţări dezvoltate, cât şi în ţări în curs de dezvoltare, raportul identifică exemple de bună practică atât în elaborarea, cât şi în implementarea programelor PES, punând accentul pe modul în care pot fi optimizate costurile de mediu şi cost-eficacitatea.

 

 

WWF elaborează prima schemă pentru plata serviciilor de mediu din România

 

 

Primul proiect din Europa care va elabora mecanisme pentru introducerea costurilor serviciilor de mediu în scheme de plată publice și private a fost lansat anul acesta şi este implementat de WWF, în România şi Bulgaria.

 

Proiectul, intitulat “Promovarea Plăţilor pentru Servicii de Mediu şi a schemelor de finanţare sustenabilă pentru Bazinul Dunării”, se numără printre cele doar 20 de inițiative similare existente în lume și propune o abordare nouă, a susținerii financiare a măsurilor și practicilor de conservare a naturii, prin recunoașterea și includerea serviciilor aduse de mediu comunităților umane. Practic, proiectul va demonstra funcționalitatea plăților pentru serviciile de mediu și a schemelor de finanțare în bazinul Dunării, cu aplicabilitate și pe alte bazine hidrografice internaționale.

 

Proiectul este finanțat de UNEP, prin fondurile GEF (Global Environmental Facility), cofinanţat de WWF și sprijinit de Uniunea Europeană. Valoarea totală a proiectului este de 2 314 049 dolari.

Please note that this information has expired.


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